IN USAdies more than 630,000 people a year due to heart disease, representing almost a quarter of all deaths. Another 140,000 people per year will suffer a stroke. Consumers are often warned about how cannabis can harm their brains, but what about their hearts? Can cannabis affect the cardiovascular system?
The cardiovascular system is tvrooted in the heart and blood vessels, which distract the blood throughout the body (the "cardio" section refers to the heart, while "vascular" refers to the system of blood vessels, veins and arteries). When the cardiovascular system is not functioning properly, it can lead to a heart attack, when a part of the heart muscle dies, or a stroke occurs when the vessels become clogged or ruptured, which then relieves the brain cells of their necessary nutrients and causes them to die.
In recentim associations-between-marijuana-use-cardiovascular-risk-factors-outcomes-systematic-review meta-analysis researchers investigated 24 articles that deal with cannabis effects on cardiovascular risk factors (eg, cholesterol, obesity and diabetes) and cardiovascular events such as stroke and heart attack. They concluded that there was insufficient evidence to confirm that cannabis use had an impact on a heart attack or stroke, or that they increased their risk factors. In fact, researchers have provided evidence that cannabis use may be associated with lowermrisk of obesity.
So, cannabis consumers are safe? Not so fast. The authors note that a large number of these studies have been biased by the increased risk of preoccupation and poor control over the level of cannabis exposure and frequency of consumption. Euphoric Cannabinoid Levelly THCgradually growsand therefore it is not easy to generally determine (based on todays patterns of use) the effects of cannabis over the past few decades.
But what is itthe main reason that led scientists and doctors to think about the connection between cannabis and cardiovascular risk factors?
Increasehealth complications associated with cannabis consumption.
The number of cannabis consumers is growing cardiovascular eventsassociated with cannabis. The main problemémem is that cannabis consumers coming to the doctor are mostly young and have few other risk factors. As a result, many people believe that cannabis plays a major role.
V jednThe study found that within an hour of consumption of cannabise five timesincreased probability of heart attack. In another they found out that weekly consumption of cannabisp four times increases the risk of stroke. Then it could be assumed that if legalization becomes more accessible through legalization, death from cardiovascular causes will also increase. And it really does. Most of this phenomenon can be observed in states that have looser cannabis laws.
Sounds terrible, doesnt it?If this is true, how could another study show that there is insufficient evidence to confirm the effect of cannabis on cardiovascular complications?
ExploredIn humans, the diversity of cannabis varieties and patterns of use are complicated
The average dispenser disposes of a large number of different hemp products. Some contain large amounts of THC, others only slightly. Some contain many other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), which have the opposite effects to body and mind than THC. But most of the studies that focus the cannabis effect on the cardiovascular system, taking into account only general patterns of use, not different cannabis varieties.
Studies usually do not monitor the consumption of THC or the presence of other cannabinoids. Greater assessment of the effect of nationwide legalization on cardiovascular events does not even consider whether these events arecannabis consumers, thus believing that better access to cannabis is a variable that changes mortality rates. So when someone says "cannabis use" increases the risk of cardiovascular events, the next question should be "what kind of cannabis?" And how frequent use? "
To better understand the effect of marijuana on the heart and blood vessels, let's look at the effects of endogenous cannabinoid receptors type I and II (CB1 and CB2) on cardiovascular function.
Influence of CB1 receptors on heart rhythm and risk of heart attack
CB1 receptors are found throughout the body's cardiovascular system. They are on the heart muscle, surround the blood vessels and regulate the brain nerves that control the heart rhythm. So there are many reasons to believe that THC-rich cannabis can affect cardiovascular function.
THC activates CB1 receptors that can increase heart rate by 20-50 beats per minute. Cardiac rhythm is increased to compensate for blood pressure that decreases with THC consumption. Blood pressure decreases because THC increases the diameter of the blood vessels, forcing the heart to work harder - more pumping blood. Some studies show that in the presence of more THC, the heart must work 30% more.
CB1 receptor activation also increases plaque deposition in the arteries, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis, a disease that is characteristic of arterial narrowing and can lead to heart attack or stroke.. This effect occurs through two main mechanisms.
First, activation of CB1 receptors increases the amount of harmful chemicals called oxygen radicals that damage the walls of the arteries. Damage to the artery wall triggers an immune response that attracts special cells of the immune system, known as macrophages. These macrophages become part of the artery wall.
This exacerbates the second CB1 receptor activation effect, which increases the amount of "poor" low density lipoprotein (LDL), macrophage cholesterol, which also adheres to the arterial walls. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species have a poor effect on plaque accumulation and increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.
Influence of CB2 receptors on cardiovascular health
While drugs that activate CB1 receptors may have a negative effect on cardiovascular health, drugs that selectively activate CB2 receptors have positive effects on heart health.
Low doses of THC have been shown to reduce plaque accumulation in arteries and thus reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.
CB2 receptors most commonly occur in cells of the immune system, but their number increases in those areas of the body that are affected by the disease or injury. So these aren't just good helpers in combating the negative health effects of CB1 receptors, but they can also be promising helpers, reducing damage after injury, or a cardiovascular event.
Activation of CB2 receptors attenuates inflammation and reduces the amount of free radicals that it causesincrease plaque deposition in the arteries, thereby risking heart attack and stroke. Through these anti-inflammatory effects, activation of CB2 receptors can help alleviate the effects of heart attack and stroke.
The answer depends on quantity. THC can activate both CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors, but low doses of THC appear to be the most potent activators of CB2 receptors that have positive cardiovascular effects. At higher doses of THC, CB1 receptor effects shift to CB2 receptors, with a negative impact on the cardiovascular system.
In fact, low doses of THC have been shown to reduce plaque accumulation in arteries and thus reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. It is believed that the positive effects of low dose THC stem from activation of CB2 receptors, not CB1 receptors, suggesting that THC's ability to activate CB2 receptors may protect the heart, while activation of CB2 receptors may damage it.
In addition to THC, there are two very abundant phytocannabinoids, CBD and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). CBD can block the ability of THC to activate CB1 receptors and thus protect against damage caused by a drop in blood pressure and increased heart rate, which is caused by cannabis itself.
THCV has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system by blocking CB1 receptor function at low levels. THCV is believed to reduce insulin sensitivity in obese mice, reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. And in the second phase of clinical trials, it turned out that, like CBD, THCV is safe. THCV activates CB1 receptors at high doses, but most cannabis species contain such low levels of THCV that cannot activate CB1 receptors.
Although this may seem frightening, cardiovascular events account for only 2% all cannabis-related diseases.
The relationship between cannabis and cardiovascular health remains unclear, and we can only derive the effects of cannabis from the effects THC itself has, or the effects of CB1 and CB2 receptor activation seen in animals.
New Studies Demonstratethat cannabis consumption increases the risk of cardiovascular events, but these studies do not take into account the amount of THC consumed, the presence of other cannabinoids, which often act in the opposite way, time, frequency, and method of consumption. No matter how you risk it yourself, avoid synthetic cannabinoids like K2 and Spice - they can kill you.
Články z kategorie About cannabis mají pouze infromační charakter. Nemají za cíl vybízet k pěstování ani šíření konopí jako drogy, ale vytvářet osvětu léčebného konopí.