The disease mainly affects young people between 20-30 years of age and women are more often affected. Clinical problems are based on inflammatory involvement of the central nervous system, ie the brain and spinal cord. The essence is a certain disorder in the human immune system, when the immune system begins to attack the own tissues of the structure of the brain and spinal cord. Most often, these are disorders of sensitivity, movement and vision disorders. One factor of the disease is an innate disposition in which a patient is born with a particular disorder in his or her genes that control the immune system. The external factors that trigger this disease may be various viral infections, smoking and vitamin D deficiency. Diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination. The disease cannot be cured yet, but it is possible to influence the ongoing inflammation quite well. If the inflammation is slowed down or even stopped, there is a good chance that the cells of the immune system will not destroy the nerve cells and this will allow the normal functioning of the nervous system.